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Lighthouse, buoy, lamp post, lamp boat
Visual navigation aids, also known as visual navigation aids, are fixed or floating navigation aids for direct visual observation. They have the characteristics of easily recognizable shape and color. They can be equipped with light fixtures and other additional equipment. The shape, color and top marks of the visual aids can be used for day observation by navigators. The light quality, i.e. the color and rhythm of the lights, is used as the characteristics of night recognition. Visual navigation aids are widely located in sea areas and inland rivers. They are the most important and basic navigation aids. It includes lighthouse, light pile, beacon, light buoy, buoy, light boat, mooring equipment and guide mark, etc.
Lighthouse is a large fixed navigation aid sign. Its main structure is usually tower-shaped, with high-intensity luminous equipment on its top. Its light range is generally not less than 15 nautical miles. The surface of the tower body is markedly colored, while the surrounding buildings and walls are white in color, so as to facilitate the identification of ships during the day. Lighthouse is used by ships to determine ship's position, navigational direction and mark navigation obstacles and dangerous areas. It is permanently located near important waterways, along coasts, capes, islands, reefs, harbours, dangerous obstacles or their adjacent areas with wide vision. Some lighthouses with very important geographical location usually need to be guarded. With the development of beacon lights, energy and power systems and remote control and telemetry technology, lighthouses are developing towards unattended automatic lighthouses.
The lamp pile is a fixed luminous beacon set near the reef, headland, port, breakwater and so on. The lamp range is generally less than 15 nautical miles, generally unattended, but some important lamp piles are on duty. Lamp piles can be used to mark the location of the first land or as part of the guide line; to mark obstacles or dangerous objects near a waterway or waterway; to mark the lateral boundaries of a waterway or waterway; to mark an area, or to mark the turning point or confluence point of a waterway.
(3) Buoys and light buoys
Typical floating buoys are buoys and light buoys. Buoy is a floating object with certain shape, size and color. Anchorage is used as navigation aid sign in a designated position. It can install lamp, sound equipment, radar reflector or or other equipment. The luminous buoy is called lamp buoy. In order to ensure the safety of navigation and facilitate identification of ships, buoys are painted with colours and marked upper contours according to the position and function of buoys. In 1984, China adopted the layout principle of the maritime buoy system (Area A) recommended by the International Association of Navigation Aids (IALA), and redesigned the national standard of "China Sea Area Navigation Aid Signs" (GB4696-1999) in accordance with the specific conditions of China, which was officially released.
Large floating sign
Lightboats, ship-shaped light buoys and LNB are called large buoys. In addition to buoy lights, radar transponders and sound signals can also be installed. Among them, the light boat is mainly used to mark the port entrance, important turning characteristics and other specific waters for ships to determine the ship's position and course. With the development of related science and technology and the renewal of equipment, the previously manned light boats have been unattended.
The guide is located on the extended line of the channel center line. It consists of two or more separate buildings with signs or lights on them. They form a straight line when viewed from the center line of the channel or the axis of the deepest route in the straight section. The height of the building behind must be higher than that of the building ahead so that two signs or lights can be seen at the same time. Guidelines provide a reference for finding the bow direction of a ship, as well as visual indication of the lateral track deviation and the direction of the deviation.